Kawanabe Kyōsai

undated photo of artist

Kawanabe Kyōsai 河鍋暁斎 (1831-1889) 

PROFILE


Source: Kawanabe Kyosai Memorial Museum website

http://www2.ocn.ne.jp/~kkkb/ENG/about.htm [not active 1-18-24]

This great artist has grown in stature as we have been able to better get the Meiji period (1868-1912) into perspective. He studied at an early age under Kuniyoshi (1798-1861) and later under Kano masters, but eventually he went his own independent way. Essentially a nationalistic painter, he was nonetheless fully aware of Western art - indeed, he dealt with it quite broad-mindedly in his book Kyōsai Gadan published in 1887 - but he was robust enough not to succumb, as so many of his contemporaries did, to the blandishments of foreign styles, and was one of the last great painters in the truly Japanese tradition. If he has a fault, it is over-exuberance: he paints vigorously with a full brush, but his immense bravura and skill are sometimes a little overpowering. But this very impetuousness and daring is often more economically used in smaller sketches and drawings and they have always elicited greater Western praise than many of his more important works.  Kyōsai, because of the warmth of his personality, his eccentricities and his known love for sake over and above his gifts as a painter, was a legend in his lifetime, and by great good fortune we have two intimate Western accounts of him at work: one by Emile Guimet (1836-1918), who with Felix Regamy, visited him in Japan in 1876, and wrote about him in Promenades Japonaise, published in 1881; the other by Josiah Conder (1852-1920), the British architect, who studied painting under Kyōsai in the 1880s, and who, in his Paintings and Studies by Kawanabe Kyōsai, published in 1911, gave a very full account of the artist's methods. ---- (Jack Hillier)

BIOGRAPHY

Sources: Comic Genius: Kawanabe Kyōsai, Oikawa Shigeru, Clark Timothy and Forrer Matthi, Tokyo Shinbun, 1996; Demon of Painting: the Art of Kawanabe Kyōsai, Timothy Clark, British Museum Press, 1993 and as footnoted.  


Artist names: Kyōsai Chikamaro 暁斎周麿, Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎 (a more complete list can be found below.) 


Kyōsai was born on the seventh day of the fourth month, Tempo 2 (1831) to Kawanabe Kiemon (Kawanabe Nobuyuki 河鍋陳之), a samurai retainer of the Koga fief.  He was given the childhood name Shūzaburō (周三郎).  In 1832 his family moved to Edo where his father purchased the samurai family name Kai, and joined the official firefighters to the Shogunate. 


Early Training

Showing an early ability for sketching, he began his formal artistic training in 1837, at the age of six, when he entered the school of the famous ukiyo-e artist Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861).  The two years he spent studying with Kuniyoshi are considered seminal.  In 1840 he entered the studio of the Kano painter Maemura Towa (?-1841) who gave him the nickname "Shuchu gaki" (“Demon of Painting”). (Gaki is a pun on the ‘hungry demons’ of medieval Buddhism and also the word ‘kid’).  The name stuck and became a persona proudly promoted by Kyōsai in many of the seals he used to the end of his career.  In 1848 he progressed to the studio of Kano Tohaku (?-1851), head of the Surugadai branch of the Kano school and completed his first known work, Bishamon.  In 1849 he completed his formal studies and was given the art name Kano Tōiku Noriyuki. 


During his time in the Kano school Kyōsai discovered his taste for sake and visiting brothels.


Pursuing an Independent Career

Following graduation he was adopted by Tsuboyama Tozan, painter to the Akimoto fief, but they parted ways at the end of 1852 due to Kyōsai’s dissolute behavior.  In 1854, after the deaths of his earlier instructors, he severed the link with the Kanō school and established himself as an independent artist, although for the rest of his life Kyōsai revered both Kuniyoshi and his Kano teachers.  It is reported that he visited the Surogadai Kano school regularly around 1859 to receive further training. His early independent career was founded on his development of the genre known as kyōga (‘crazy pictures’) – from which his own name Kyōsai derived. 


The year Kyōsai left the Kanō school to pursue an independent career, 1854, saw the Shogunate forced to sign a treaty with Commodore Matthew Perry opening diplomatic relations between Japan and the outside world under threat from eight US warships in Edo Bay.


In 1857 he married the first of four wives, Okiyo, established a shop at Hongo Daikonbata and succeeded to the Kawanabe name.   He began to use the (artist name) Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎 and paint kyōga in the style of Toba Sojo.  The fundamental meaning of the character sei, repeated twice in Seisei, a name Kyōsai would use for the rest of his life, is ‘enlightenment’.  Kyō means ‘wild’ or ‘crazy’, and the name Kyōsai (‘Crazy Studio’) is clearly linked to his production of kyōga.


Kyōsai’s earliest-known group of color prints are the several designs he did for the publisher Ebisuya of a leopard, thought to be displayed in Japan in the summer of 1860. 


In 1860 his son Shōzaburō was born, followed by the death of his second wife and his father and in 1861 his elder brother died.


The year 1863 saw the start of Kyōsai's major period of woodblock production creating close to sixty designs that year, including works for the Go-joraku Tokaido (Gyōretsu Tōkaidō) series which treated the Shogun’s visit to Kyoto and for the kyōga series Kyōsai hyakuzu (One Hundred Pictures by Kyōsai) [represented by a number prints in this collection.]  He would go on to collaborate with Kunisada and other artists on print designs, supply designs for novels, and contribute to the album A Journey Around Hell and Paradise

Arrested for Satire

In October 1870, Kyōsai was arrested after taking part in a shogaki held by the haiku poet Kikakudo Ujaku at a restaurant on the banks of Shinobazu Pond at which he got very drunk and painted works that satirized the authorities. He was held in detention for several months and then sentenced to fifty lashes in January 1871. Kyōsai gadan says the works in question showed shoes being put on inhabitants of the island of long-legged people and inhabitants of the island of long-armed people pulling hairs from a large statue of the Buddha – both of which were interpreted as satirizing officials’ sycophancy towards foreigners. 

After his release Kyōsai changed the first character kyō of his name from ‘crazy’ to one meaning ‘dawn’ or ‘enlightenment’.  For health reasons, he was not able to begin working again until the end of 1871. 

The number of times Kyōsai was arrested for running afoul of the authorities is not certain but it may well have been as many as seven times, as discussed by Freya Terryn in her article "Kawanabe Kyōsai and Émile Guimet: Revisiting Guimet's Role as Kyōsai's Discoverer" appearing in Andon 116, Autumn 2023, The Journal of the Society for Japanese Art, p. 39-58.

Kyōsai in Tokyo Prison, 10th month 1870

Issued in the same month he was arrested, this is Kyōsai's take on his detention appearing in Kyōsai gadan.

Contact with Famous Westerners

When Westerners came into the country, Kyōsai came into contact with several of them including Ernest Fenollosa, the American art historian of Japanese Art who helped found the Tokyo School of Fine Arts and the Tokyo Imperial Museum. Two foreigners who became especially important in documenting Kyōsai's life were Émile Guimet (1836-1918) and Josiah Conder (1852-1920). Guimet (1836-1918) visited him in 1876 in Japan and later wrote his memories down in an essay titled Promenades Japonaises and the British architect Josiah Conder, who became his student in 1877 and documented Kyōsai's life and works, stayed with Kyōsai until his death in 1889.1 In 1911, after returning to England, Conder wrote Paintings and Studies by Kawanabe Kyōsai which contributed to Kyōsai's growing fame overseas.


1For a fascinating assessment of Guimet's introduction of Kyōsai to the West, see the article Kawanabe Kyōsai and Émile Guimet: Revisiting Guimet's Role as Kyōsai's Discoverer by Freya Terryn appearing in Andon 116, Autumn 2023, The Journal of the Society for Japanese Art, p. 39-58.


Reminiscences by Westerners

Studying a Severed Head

Source: “Some Phases of Japanese Art.” Leon Mead, appearing in The Craftsman, Volume III: October 1902-March 1903, United Crafts

Mrs. Hugh Eraser, in her delightful Letters from Japan, states that Kyōsai at nine "captured the severed head of a drowned man from a swollen river, and brought it home to study in secret, as any other child would treasure a toy or a sweetmeat. The horror was discovered by his family, and he was ordered to take the grisly thing back to the stream and throw it in. Reluctantly the little boy trudged back to the river bank, the poor head in his arms; but before he threw it away, he spent long hours, sitting on the ground, copying every line of the awful countenance." Other curious stories are told of his early passion for drawing and of the many ways in which he justified his later reputation as one of the greatest artists Japan has produced.

Nine Stages of Death 九相図 , before 1870

Kawanabe Kyosai Memorial Museum of Art

A Charitable Man

Source: Japan, The Place and the People, George Waldo Browne, Dana Estes & Company, 1901, p. 394.

Though he received large sums for his work, he gave it nearly all to the poor. He could bear to see no one suffer while he had a crumb to give. At one time he was stopping at one of those pretty little wayside inns so common in Japan, and called there tea-houses, which was kept by a poor widow. On that day she was feeling especially unhappy, having just been ordered to give up the house for an old debt. No sooner had she told this than the artist began to cover the stainless paper walls with grotesque figures and strange images. Alarmed at the disfiguration of her house, the frightened woman begged him to stop, and finding her protestations useless, she called upon others to take the madman away. But her entire demeanor changed at the whispered utterance of the name "Kyōsai," and her joy knew no bounds as she saw him cover with his matchless brush not only walls but ceiling. She realized enough from the sale of those walls to pay all her debts and leave her a comfortable sum besides.


Display of His Work Abroad

His work was exhibited at the Vienna International Exposition in 1873 and at the Exposition of Paris in 1883.


Death and Summation

The year Kyōsai died, 1889, saw the promulgation by the Emperor of a new constitution, instituting a conservative system of representative democracy modeled on Imperial Germany that was designed to demonstrate to the USA and European powers that Japan was now ‘civilized’ and worthy to join their ranks.


Kawanabe Kyōsai was a drinker and a genius, a painter and printmaker of the weird, the comic and the obscure. He belonged to the generation of ukiyo-e artists in transformation from the Edo to the Meiji period, from the Middle Ages to a Modern Industrialized Society.


Kawanabe Kyōsai was an eccentric who exaggerated everything he did - from his consumption of sake wine to his painting and printmaking style. With his fellow artists Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900) and Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915), Kyōsai frequently went on drinking binges. Like Kunichika, he was great in inventing great stories.


The output of Kawanabe Kyōsai's creativity was enormous. At the end of his life, he had produced hundreds of paintings, prints and illustrated books.


The paintings and print subjects of Kyōsai range from traditional to bizarre and fantastic. His drawing style was unique and at the same time he was capable of painting in the finest traditional style of a 18th century painter. Many of his designs are comic, satiric, humorous and sketchy. Others are strange, weird and frightening. He had a lively interest in Western art, but was never interested in imitating it.


In August 2000 a painting by Kawanabe Kyōsai on a two-fold screen was hammered at 400,000 British Pounds at Christie's in London, the highest price ever paid for a painting of the Meiji era.


Kyōsai Woodblock Prints [reference only - not part of this collection]

A Dutchman Capturing a

Ferocious Tiger Alive

1860

Standing Screen of a Tiger

1878

Cartoons by Kyōsai, 1864

Battle of Frogs

1864

Repelling the Mongol Pirate Ships

1863

Comic One Hundred Turns of the Rosary

1864

Kyōsai Gadan (暁斎画談), or "Kyōsai's Treatise on Painting"

(an autobiographical painting manual)


Issued in four volumes with each volume approximately 27.4 x 17.5 cm.


Source: Copying the Master and Stealing His Secrets: Talent and Training in Japanese Painting, Brenda G. Jordan and Victoria Weston, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, p.95-102.


Kyōsai embraced a pedagogy that included the essential elements of copying and studying the works of former painters.  His preface to the Kyōsai gadan of 1887 begins with the words, “Wanting to understand both old and new masters, I copied down any genuine major work that caught my eye.”  Later in the same preface, he continued, “The most important part of this book is to show to beginners of the younger generation the essentials of brush technique [hitsui] of famous masters of past and present, and, in addition, to cause the development of their own technique [dokuji no gijutsu], ultimately allowing them to master a skill that surpasses the men of old.” 


Kyōsai wanted his students to see the larger picture involved in a life devoted to painting – the inseparable character of one’s personality and one’s art, the importance of shasei (drawing from nature), the study of old and new masters, training in brush techniques, and, ultimately, the development of one’s own style.  This manual for aspiring students contains some 165 illustrations, 66 in the biography portion and 99 in the painting manual.  The manual uses the writing of the Kyoto Kano painter Eino (1631-1697) as a source for the section “Learning to Paint.”  Initial illustrations in this section begin with samples of Kano brushwork and examples of the work of Kano painters are included throughout, particularly the paintings of Kano Tan’yu.  However, the Kyōsai gadan also freely draws on sources from nearly all schools of Japanese painting for this purpose, from medieval times to the nineteenth century, in addition to Chinese and Western examples.


Among the copies from foreign sources is the figure of Lacoon struggling with serpents (see IHL Cat. #296), based on an image of the marble sculpture Lacoon and His Two Sons in the Musei Vaticani, Rome.  (The sculpture may date anywhere from the second century B.C. to the first century A.D.)  In Kyosai’s copy, the figure is bald and drawn with the major muscle groups revealed as if it were a type of anatomical study.  Examples of the work of Japanese painters range from the Muromachi ink painters Bunsei (fl. mid-fifteenth century) and Shubun (fl. 1414-1463) (see IHL Cat. #299) to Maruyama Okyo, Nagasawa Rosetsu (1754-1799), and Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806).


Beginning with the fourth illustration, Kyōsai offered his readers a series of anatomy drawings showing the alignment of muscles or the underlying skeletal structure of the human body. (See Kyosai Gadan, Anatomical Drawing of Front Facing Man IHL Cat. #297 and Kyosai Gadan, Anatomical Drawing of Rear Facing Man, IHL Cat. #298.)


The publication of painting manuals was a quite well-established practice by the 1880s.  However, the Kyōsai gadan was unusual in several respects.  First, the compilation of an autobiographical text and painting manual that contained a special focus on personal revelations was uncommon.  Second, the book includes text in English on how to paint, including a description of colors.  A note at the end in Japanese states that part of the text is based on the writing of Kano Eino, as mentioned above; however, the accompanying English text inexplicably substitutes the name of Nishikawa Sukenobu (1671-1751), an ukiyo-e painter who had been a pupil of either Eino or his son Eikei (1662-1702).  Finally there is information, or rather advertisement, on where one could purchase painting materials.  As the Kyōsai gadan was published for public consumption, interested parties could take advantage of the examples and advice presented and use the book for personal study.

Thus, the Kyōsai gadan amplified the tradition of woodblock-printed painting manuals, following the idea of a copybook but also including a wealth of new types of material  The gadan presents to the reader the story of one man’s passion for painting but also delivers a theoretical foundation on which students should base their studies.  Shasei is to be attended to first and practiced often, but the pupil should also focus on brush technique and works by well-known painters and print designers.  The manual was meant to be a tool for achieving technical excellence but with the end in mind that the student would strive to develop a superior, and clearly personal, technique. 

Cover of Volume 1

Inside Front Page of Volume 1

click on each image to enlarge

English translation of "Learning of Painting" appearing in Volume 1

Obituary

Source: Kawanabe Kyosai Research Community website https://kyosai-en.blogspot.com/2006_05_01_archive.html [accessed 1-18-24]


May 18, 1889, The Japan Weekly Mail, p. 477-479

KYŌSAI [communicated] [by Josiah Conder]


“KAWANABE KYŌSAI died on the evening of the 26th (April). In him Japan has lost a great painter, undoubtedly the most talented of his time. What the studied writings of the polished author are to the inspired uttering of the born orator, such were the most successful works of other painters of his day compared with the marvelous conceptions and vigorous creations of this powerful artist.


A patient student of nature and reverential copyist of all that was worthy in the works of the past, his own productions always bore the impress of originality and genius. Of Kyōsai it may be truly said that from birth to death he was a devoted servant of the painter's art. His first infant efforts with the brush were made with nature as his model.


Three days before he died the desire to paint once more seized him irresistibly, and he sketched upon the paper slide behind his bed a weird outline of his own emaciated form bent and tottering as he stood to paint, and suffering from the symptoms of his fatal disease. A few straight lines below the knees, suggesting too plainly the square shell in which he was soon to be enclosed, showed that he knew well this sketch would be his last.  Heartrending and horrible, shaky and imperfect, these touches contain some of the genius of Kyōsai. In their own weird way they tell the story of his untimely death: and where in the history of all art has such a story been so briefly, and strangely expressed? But a short time before his spirit departed, and after he had been barely able to utter a few feeble words to his wife and children, with an agonizing cry and almost supper natural effort he called for his old kyoji-ya, and gave him instructions about the mount of one of his latest works. Thus his last despairing struggle was that of severance from the art he loved.


From force of education a follower of the methods and many of the conventions of his native art as practiced by his great predecessors, Kyōsai never considered that this art had attained its final limits. He regarded with unlimited respect the scientific knowledge of anatomical form, perspective and sciography revealed to him in foreign works and the more realistic developments of nature painting and landscape as developed in the West. To him there always existed a great El Dorado of art beyond the limit of the lights into which he was born and within the radius of which his own opportunities compelled him to work.


In the rules which he laid down for the guidance of his pupils he first insisted upon a careful and attentive copying of natural life. The small garden of his studio was filled with all manner of animal, bird, fish, and insect life. Copying from nature he called the foundation or basis of painting and the mannerism of the touch an ornamental adjunct equally necessary though secondary in the art. He urged also the study of photographs and oil paintings as an aid to correct and faithful representation; but nature was in all cases to be the first master.


Such faithful copies from nature were to be regarded simply as studies and as aids to observation and memory. With a mind and memory well stored with all natural forms, and a hand skillfully trained to the production of powerful and expressive lines, the painter, seeking inspiration, would produce extempore his best works. Slavish copying for reproduction of the ideas of former painters he condemned, and though regarding many of the past artists of the old schools with profound reverence, he considered those schools as now dead all but in name, and represented only by powerless slaves to method and indifferent imitators. His independence of character and versatility had long severed him from the outward conventions of a school of which the letter and not the spirit remained. Modest to the degree of humility, and full of veneration for talent, he found but little in contemporary art to venerate, and lived alone as a painter in the society of his own powerful conceptions and in communion with the past great spirits of art whose closer company he has now joined.“


Josiah Conder the British architect, designer of the Ueno Museum, who studied with Kyōsai for the last eight years of Kyōsai's life, was at his bedside when he died of stomach cancer.1 He is buried in Zuirin-ji Temple, Yanaka Tokyo.

1Demon of Painting: The Art of Kawanabe Kyōsai, Timothy Clark, British Museum Press, 1993, p. 29.

Kawanabe Seals, Art Names and Signatures

Note: Kyōsai/Gyōsai and Shōjō/Seisei

The romanization of 暁斎 and 狂斎 as "Gyōsai", rather than "Kyōsai", is erroneous, although some institutions and websites continue to show Gyōsai as either an alternate reading of the characters or as a (art name) of Kyōsai.

According to Japanese scholar Katō Yoshio, the characters 猩々 are an early, and little encountered1, (artist name) of Kyōsai and should be read as Shōjō (しょうじょう ) "an imaginary animal in China [who] loves liquor and looks like a red monkey," meaning a "state of being drunk," very much in keeping with Kyōsai's reputation. The similar appearing characters 惺々, more commonly found in Kyōsai's signatures, should be read as Seisei (せいせい ), meaning a "state of clear consciousness."2

Roberts, cited below, reads both 猩々 and 惺々as Seisei which he translates as "heavy drinker." He makes no mention of the Shōjō.  Conder in his description of Kyōsai seals shown below, reads 惺々as Shōjo (note lack of macron on "jo") and makes no mention of the Seisei.


1See signature [46] below for an example.

2From an email correspondence between Katō Yoshio and Guy Pepermans in March 2021, kindly forwarded to me by Guy. Katō directs us to his entry for Kyōsai on the website of the Ukiyo-e bunken shiryōkan 浮世絵文献資料館 at https://www.ne.jp/asahi/kato/yoshio/kobetuesi/kyosai.html [accessed 1-18-24]



Art Names ()

Source: A Dictionary of Japanese Artists: Painting, Sculpture, Ceramics, Prints, Lacquer, Laurance P. Roberts, Weatherhill, 1976, p. 100.


Kyōsai 暁斎, 暁斎, 狂齋

Tōiku (Tōyū) 洞郁

Baiga 売画

Baiga Dōjin 売画道人

Baiga Kyōsha 売画狂者 (狂者 insane person)

Chikamaro 周麿 (used until middle of 1863)

Gaki 画鬼

Hata Kyōsha 畑狂者 (狂者 insane person)

Kyōsha Gaishi 狂者外史

Nyokū (Jokū) Nyūdō 如空入堂 (entering the way)

Raisui 雷酔 ("thunder drunk")

Seiseian 猩々庵 (惺々庵)

Seisei Kyōsai 猩々狂斎 (猩々heavy drinker)

Seiseisai 猩々斎

Shuransai 酒乱斎 (酒乱 drunken frenzy)

Suiraibō 酔雷坊

Seals as pictured in Paintings and Studies by Kawanabe Kyosai by Josiah Conder

click on image to enlarge

click on image to enlarge

A Sampling of the Artist Signatures and Seals used by Kyōsai

Notes:

1. all transcriptions are my own and subject to error. 

2. the iteration marks 々and 二 are both seen in Kyosai's signatures and seals and are not generally differentiated in the transcriptions below.


[1] Kyōsai 狂斎; [2] Kyōsai 狂斎; [3] Kyōsai gi 狂斎戯; [4] Kyōsai gi 狂斎戯; [5] Kyōsai giga 狂斎戯画; [6] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎; [7] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎; [8] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎; [9] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎; [10] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with gaki 画鬼 seal; [11] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with gaki 画鬼 seal; [12] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with gaki 画鬼 seal; [13] Seisei Kyōsai ga 惺々狂斎画 with unread seal; [14] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎 with Tōiku 洞郁 seal; [15] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎 with ?Sei 惺 partially read seal; [16] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎 with Jokū Kyōsai 如空暁斎 and Kyōsai 暁斎 seals; [17] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with unread seal; [18] Seisei Kyōsai ga 惺々狂斎画 with unread seal; [19] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎; [20] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with unread seal; [21]  Seisei Kyōsai 惺々狂斎 with stylized seal; [22] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with Kyōsai gaki 暁斎画鬼 seal; [23] Seisei Kyōsai nyūdō 惺々狂斎 入堂 with Seisei Kyōsai 惺暁 seal; [24] Seisei Kyōsai 惺々暁斎 with sei 惺 seal; [25] Seisei Kyōsai giga 惺々狂斎戯画 with 惺々 Seisei inside triangle; [26] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々狂斎  with Seisei 惺々 seal; [27] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々狂斎  with Seisei 惺々 seal; [28] ōju Seisei Kyôsai 応需惺々狂斎 with Seisei 惺々inside triangle [29] ōju Kyōsha 応需狂者; [30] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々暁 with 惺々 Seisei inside triangle; [31] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々暁斎; [32] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々暁斎; [33] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々暁斎; [34] ōju Kyō Seisei 応需狂惺々; [35] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々; [36] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 応需惺々斎; [37] ōju Seisei Kyōsai 應需 惺々暁斎 with Seisei Kyōsai 惺二暁斎 seal using 二 in place of 々as the iteration mark in Seisei; [38] Jokū Kyōsai zu 如空暁斎図 with Bankoku tobu 萬國飛 (with crows) and Jokū 如空 seals; [39] Seisei Kyōsai Tōiku 惺々狂斎洞郁 with Seisei 惺々inside triangular shaped seal; [40] Chikamaro 周麿; [41] ōju Chikamaro 応需周麿; [42] ōju Chikamaro 応需周麿; [43] ōju Chikamaro 応需周麿; [44] ōju Seisei Chikamaro 応需 惺々周麿; [45] ōju Seisei Chikamaro 応需惺々周麿; [46] Shōjō Kyōsai shūga 猩々暁斎集画

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